What are Alkyl Halides?
Here, we provided Alkyl Halide Hand Written Note For BSC. Alkyl halides also called haloalkanes or halogens alkanes are chemical compounds that are often derived from alkanes that contain one or more halogens. We can also say that alkyl halides are a subset of the general class of halocarbons. Free download PDF Alkyl Halide Hand Written Note For BSC.
Alkyl halides (also known as haloalkanes) are compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms in an alkane have been replaced by halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine). Alkyl halides fall into different classes depending on how the halogen atom is positioned on the chain of carbon atoms; there are some chemical differences between the various types. Free download PDF Alkyl Halide Hand Written Note For BSC.
BOOK NAME – ALKYL HALIDE HAND WRITTEN NOTE FOR BSC
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Alkyl Halide Properties
Alkyl halides are colorless when they exist in pure form. But, bromides and iodides develop color when exposed to light. Many volatile halogen compounds have a sweet smell. Free download PDF Alkyl Halide Hand Written Note For BSC.
Boiling and Melting Points
- Methyl chloride, methyl bromide, ethyl chloride, and some chlorofluoromethanes are in the form of gas at room temperature.
- Higher members are liquids or solids.
- As we know, molecules of organic halogen compounds are polar in nature.
- Due to greater polarity and greater molar mass as compared to parent hydrocarbon, the intermolecular force of attraction is stronger in halogen derivatives.
- So, the boiling points of chlorides, bromides, and iodides are considerably higher than that of the hydrocarbon with the same molecular mass.
- The attraction gets stronger as the size and number of electrons increases.
- The boiling points of alkyl halides will decrease in the order RI > RBr > RCl > RF.
- Bromo-derivatives, iodo-derivatives, and polychloro derivatives of hydrocarbons are heavier than water.
- The density increases with an increase in the number of carbon atoms, halogen atoms, and atomic mass of halogen atoms.
- The haloalkanes are less soluble in water.
- To dissolve haloalkanes in water, energy is required to overcome the attraction between the haloalkane molecule and break the hydrogen bonds between the water molecules for haloalkanes to dissolve in water.
- Very less amount of energy is released when new attractions between the haloalkanes and the water molecules are formed. Which is not as strong as the original hydrogen bonds in water.
- So, the solubility of haloalkanes in water is less.
- But, the haloalkanes will dissolve in the organic solvent than in the water. Because of this, the complex interaction between the haloalkanes and the creative molecules has the same potential as those broken by the unique and molecular haloalkanes.
The chemical reaction of haloalkanes can be divided into three categories:
- Nucleophilic substitution reaction
- Elimination reaction
- Reaction with metals
Uses of Alkyl Halide
- Many organic compounds containing halogens occur in nature and some of these are clinically useful.
- These classes of compounds find good applications in industry as well as in day to day life.
- They are used as solvents for relatively non-polar compounds and as starting materials for the synthesis of a wide range of organic compounds.
- Chlorine containing antibiotic, chloramphenicol, produced by soil microorganisms is very effective for the treatment of typhoid fever.
- Some fully fluorinated compounds are being considered as potential blood substitutes in surgery.
- They are used as synthon equivalents in organic synthesis.
- Previously used as refrigerants and propellants.
- They are also used in fire extinguishers.
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