Here, we provided to Alcohol Hand Written Note For BSC. Alcohols are those organic compounds that are characterized by the presence of one, two, or more hydroxyl groups (−OH) that are attached to the carbon atom in an alkyl group or hydrocarbon chain. Free download PDF Alcohol Hand Written Note For BSC.
Alcohols are known to be one of most of the commonly occurring organic compounds. These are utilized in the form of sweeteners, preparation of perfumes, and sometimes in the process of synthesizing other compounds, wherein some others are abundantly manufactured in organic chemicals coming in various industries. Free download PDF Alcohol Hand Written Note For BSC.
In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. Free download PDF Alcohol Hand Written Note For BSC.
BOOK NAME – ALCOHOL HAND WRITTEN NOTE FOR BSC
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An important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members, includes all compounds for which the general formula is CnH2n+1OH. Simple mono alcohols that are the subject of this article include primary (RCH2OH), secondary (R2CHOH), and tertiary (R3COH) alcohols. Free download PDF Alcohol Hand Written Note For BSC.
The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority. When a higher priority group is present in the compound, the prefix hydroxy- is used in its IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non-IUPAC names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance is an alcohol. However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups (particularly sugars, such as glucose and sucrose) have names that include neither the suffix -ol, nor the prefix hydroxy-. Free download PDF Alcohol Hand Written Note For BSC.
Main Types of Alcohols
Alcohols are differentiated based upon the presence of the hydroxyl group attached. The location of this hydroxyl group as well will change the physical and chemical properties of any alcohol.
There are three types of alcohol.
- primary alcohols
- secondary alcohols
- tertiary alcohols
What are the Properties of Alcohols?
Alcohols are organic compounds in which a hydrogen atom of an aliphatic carbon is replaced with a hydroxyl group. Thus an alcohol molecule consists of two parts; one containing the alkyl group and the other containing the functional group hydroxyl group. They have a sweet odor. They exhibit a unique set of physical and chemical properties. Free download PDF Alcohol Hand Written Note For BSC.
Physical Properties of Alcohol
1. The Boiling Point of Alcohols
Alcohols generally have higher boiling points in comparison to other hydrocarbons having equal molecular masses. This is due to the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups of alcohol molecules. In general, the boiling point of alcohol increases with an increase in the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic carbon chain. On the other hand, the boiling point decreases with an increase in branching in aliphatic carbon chains the Van der Waals forces decrease with a decrease in surface area. Thus primary alcohols have a higher boiling point. Free download PDF Alcohol Hand Written Note For BSC.
2. Solubility of Alcohols
The solubility of alcohol in water is governed by the hydroxyl group present. The hydroxyl group in alcohol is involved in the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Thus, hydrogen bonds are formed between water and alcohol molecules which makes alcohol soluble in water. However, the alkyl group attached to the hydroxyl group is hydrophobic in nature. Thus, the solubility of alcohol decreases with the increase in the size of the alkyl group. Free download PDF Alcohol Hand Written Note For BSC.
3. The Acidity of Alcohols
Alcohols react with active metals such as sodium, potassium, etc. to form the corresponding alkoxide. These reactions of alcohols indicate their acidic nature. The acidic nature of alcohol is due to the polarity of the –OH bond. The acidity of alcohols decreases when an electron-donating group is attached to the hydroxyl group as it increases the electron density on the oxygen atom.
Thus, primary alcohols are generally more acidic than secondary and tertiary alcohols. Due to the presence of unshared electrons on the oxygen atom, alcohols act as Bronsted bases too. Free download PDF Alcohol Hand Written Note For BSC.
Chemical Properties of Alcohols
Alcohols exhibit a wide range of spontaneous chemical reactions due to the cleavage of the C-O bond and O-H bond. Some prominent chemical reactions of alcohols are:
1. Oxidation of Alcohol
Alcohols undergo oxidation in the presence of an oxidizing agent to produce aldehydes and ketones which upon further oxidation give carboxylic acids.
2. Dehydration of Alcohol
Upon treatment with protic acids, alcohols undergo dehydration (removal of a molecule of water) to form alkenes. Dehydration of alcohol
Uses of Alcohols
There are several uses of alcohol. Some are listed below.
- Alcohols are consumed as beverages where the alcohols specifically consist of 30–40 percent of ethanol by volume.
- These are used as an anti-freezing agent with a mix of a solution containing ethylene glycol dissolved in water.
- Alcohol ethanol is used as an antiseptic agent.
- Some alcohols are used as fuels in internal combustion engines like methanol.
- In the field of medicine, a few of them are used as preservatives for the specimens in laboratories.
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