Here, we provided to Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC. Nomenclature (UK: /nəˈmɛŋklətʃər/, US: /ˈnoʊmənkleɪtʃər/) is a system of names or terms or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles, rules, and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the specialist terms used in scientific and any other disciplines. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
Onomastics, the study of proper names and their origins, includes anthroponymy (concerned with human names, including personal names, surnames, and nicknames); toponymy (the study of place names), and etymology (the derivation, history, and use of names) as revealed through comparative and descriptive linguistics. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
The scientific need for simple, stable, and internationally accepted systems for naming objects of the natural world has generated many formal nomenclatural systems. Probably the best known of these nomenclatural systems are the five codes of biological nomenclature that govern the Latinized scientific names of organisms. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
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IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry
In chemical nomenclature, the organic chemistry nomenclature IUPAC is a method of organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Is published in the Organic Chemistry Nomenclature. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
Ideally, any conceivable organic compound should have a name from which to construct an unmistakable structural formula. Inorganic chemistry also has an IUPAC nomenclature. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
In order to avoid long and tedious names in normal communication, the official recommendations for naming IUPAC are not always followed in practice, except when a compound has to be given an unambiguous and absolute definition. Sometimes, IUPAC names may be simpler than older names, as with ethanol, rather than ethyl alcohol. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
They can be more easily understood for relatively simple molecules than non-systematic names which have to be learned or looked over. The common or trivial name, however, is often considerably shorter and clearer, and so preferred. Such non-systematic names are often derived from an original compound source. Furthermore, very long names may be less obvious than structural formulas. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
Trivial Nomenclature System
The Trivial Nomenclature system involves a non-systematic approach to the naming of organic compounds. There do not exist any particular collection of rules for writing the trivial naming of compounds. Names of organic compounds are simplified via this system. Examples of this include phenol, acetic acid, and toluene. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
The compounds named via trivial nomenclature often have much shorter and simpler names than the corresponding IUPAC nomenclature of the same compounds. For this reason, this system is still not obsolete today.
An example of this relative ease of naming compounds can be seen in the following example – A type of carboxylic acid which is generally found in tamarind is referred to as tartaric acid as per the trivial system. The corresponding IUPAC nomenclature of tartaric acid would be 2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-Butanedioic acid. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
Drawbacks of the Trivial Nomenclature System
A few shortcomings of the trivial system for naming organic compounds are listed below.
- Several trivial names can exist for one specific compound. An example of this can be observed in the alternate names of Phenol, for which names such as hydroxybenzene and carbolic acid also exist.
- The Trivial nomenclature system is limited to only a few compounds in each specific group. An example of this is: the first two members belonging to the carboxylic acid group have the trivial names of formic acid and acetic acid. However, no trivial names exist for carboxylic acids with a greater number of atoms.
- There exist no particular set of guidelines for the nomenclature of complex compounds in the trivial system.
Nomenclature of Organic Compounds
The formation of a systematic name for an organic compound requires the first selection and then naming of a parent structure. This basic name may then be modified by prefixes, infixes and in the case of a parent hydride, suffixes which convey precisely the structural changes required to generate the compound in question from the parent structure. In contrast to such systematic names, there are traditional names that are widely used both in industry and academic circles. Examples are acetic acid, benzene, and pyridine. Therefore when they meet the requirements of utility and when they fit into the general pattern of systematic nomenclature, these traditional names are retained. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
A major new principle is elaborated and the concept of preferred IUPAC names is developed and systematically applied. Up to now, the nomenclature developed and recommended by IUPAC has emphasized the generation of unambiguous names in accord with the historical development of the subject. In 1993 due to the explosion in the circulation of information and the globalization of human activities, it was deemed necessary to have a common language that would prove important in legal situations with manifestations in patents, export-import regulations, environmental health, and safety information, etc. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
Scope of Nomenclature for Organic Compounds
For nomenclature purposes, all compounds containing carbon as the principal element to be organic compounds are qualified. Oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen are the three elements usually associated with carbon to form the system of functional or characteristics groups. Other elements, among them the halogens and sulfur complete the basic core of elements found in organic compounds. Substitutive nomenclature was first applied to compounds containing this set of atoms. The success of this type of nomenclature was such that it was extended to all elements of Groups 14, 15, 16, 17, and in Group 13 to boron; it could be extended to all elements of Group 13. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
According to the Guidelines set by IUPAC, the nomenclature of compounds must follow these steps:
- The Longest Chain Rule: The parent hydrocarbon must be identified and subsequently named. The parent chain belonging to the compound in question is generally the longest chain of carbon atoms, be it in the form of a straight-chain or a chain of any other shape.
- The Lowest Set of Locants: The carbon atoms belonging to the parent hydrocarbon chain must be numbered using natural numbers and beginning from the end in which the lowest number is assigned to the carbon atom which carries the substituents.
- Multiple instances of the same substituent: Prefixes which indicate the total number of the same substituent in the given organic compounds are given, such as di, tri, etc.
- Naming of different substituents: In the organic compounds containing multiple substituents, the corresponding substituents are arranged in alphabetical order of names in the IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds in question.
- The naming of different substituents present at the same positions: In the scenario wherein two differing substituent groups are present at the same position of the organic compound, the substituents are named in ascending alphabetical order.
- Naming Complex Substituents: Complex substituents of organic compounds having branched structures must be named as substituted alkyl groups whereas the carbon which is attached to the substituent group is numbered as one. These branched and complex substituents must be written in brackets in the IUPAC nomenclature of the corresponding compounds.
IUPAC Nomenclature of a Few Important Aliphatic Compounds
The IUPAC nomenclature of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes are discussed in the subsections below.
The General formula of alkanes corresponds to CnH2n+2.
The suffix ‘ane’ is generally used to describe alkanes. Examples for the nomenclature of alkanes as per IUPAC guidelines include methane for the compound CH4 and Butane for the compound C4H10. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
The General formula of alkenes is described as CnH2n.
The suffix ‘ene’ is used to describe alkenes via IUPAC norms. Examples for the nomenclature of alkenes include the name ethene used to describe the compound given by C2H4 and Propene used to describe the compound given by C3H6. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
The General formula of alkynes is CnH2n-2.
The suffix ‘yne’ is generally used to describe alkynes. An example of the IUPAC nomenclature of alkynes is: ethyne used to describe the compound given by C2H2. Free download PDF Nomenclature Hand Written Note For BSC.
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