Here, we provided to Atomic Structure Hand Written Note For BSC. Atomic structure refers to the structure of an atom comprising a nucleus (center) in which the protons (positively charged) and neutrons (neutral) are present. The negatively charged particles called electrons revolve around the center of the nucleus. Free download PDF Atomic Structure Hand Written Note For BSC.
An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter that forms a chemical element. Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms. Atoms are extremely small, typically around 100 picometers across. They are so small that accurately predicting their behavior using classical physics—as if they were tennis balls, for example—is not possible due to quantum effects. Free download PDF Atomic Structure Hand Written Note For BSC.
Every atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus. The nucleus is made of one or more protons and a number of neutrons. Only the most common variety of hydrogen has no neutrons. More than 99.94% of an atom’s mass is in the nucleus.
The protons have a positive electric charge, the electrons have a negative electric charge, and the neutrons have no electric charge. If the number of protons and electrons are equal, then the atom is electrically neutral. If an atom has more or fewer electrons than protons, then it has an overall negative or positive charge, respectively – such atoms are called ions. Free download PDF Atomic Structure Hand Written Note For BSC.
The electrons of an atom are attracted to the protons in an atomic nucleus by the electromagnetic force. The protons and neutrons in the nucleus are attracted to each other by the nuclear force. This force is usually stronger than the electromagnetic force that repels the positively charged protons from one another. Under certain circumstances, the repelling electromagnetic force becomes stronger than the nuclear force. In this case, the nucleus splits and leaves behind different elements. This is a form of nuclear decay. Free download PDF Atomic Structure Hand Written Note For BSC.
The number of protons in the nucleus is the atomic number and it defines to which chemical element the atom belongs. For example, any atom that contains 29 protons is copper. The number of neutrons defines the isotope of the element. Atoms can attach to one or more other atoms by chemical bonds to form chemical compounds such as molecules or crystals. The ability of atoms to associate and dissociate is responsible for most of the physical changes observed in nature. Chemistry is the discipline that studies these changes. Free download PDF Atomic Structure Hand Written Note For BSC.
The study about the structure of atoms gives a great insight into the entire class of chemical reactions, bonds, and their physical properties. The first scientific theory of atomic structure was proposed by John Dalton in the 1800s. Free download PDF Atomic Structure Hand Written Note For BSC.
BOOK NAME – ATOMIC STRUCTURE HAND WRITTEN NOTE FOR BSC
SIZE – 17.09MB
PAGES – 25
Table of Content
- What is Atomic Structure?
- Atomic Models
- Dalton’s Atomic Theory
- Thomson Atomic Model
- Rutherford Atomic Theory
- Subatomic Particles
- Atomic Structure of Isotopes
- Bohr’s Atomic Theory
- Dual Nature of Matter
The advances in atomic structure and quantum mechanics have led to the discovery of other fundamental particles. The discovery of subatomic particles has been the basis for many other discoveries and inventions. Free download PDF Atomic Structure Hand Written Note For BSC.
What is Atomic Structure?
The atomic structure of an element refers to the constitution of its nucleus and the arrangement of the electrons around it. Primarily, the atomic structure of matter is made up of protons, electrons, and neutrons. Free download PDF Atomic Structure Hand Written Note For BSC.
The protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of the atom, which is surrounded by the electrons belonging to the atom. The atomic number of an element describes the total number of protons in its nucleus. Free download PDF Atomic Structure Hand Written Note For BSC.
Neutral atoms have equal numbers of protons and electrons. However, atoms may gain or lose electrons in order to increase their stability and the resulting charged entity is called an ion. Free download PDF Atomic Structure Hand Written Note For BSC.
Atoms of different elements have different atomic structures because they contain different numbers of protons and electrons. This is the reason for the unique characteristics of different elements. Free download PDF Atomic Structure Hand Written Note For BSC.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, many scientists attempted to explain the structure of the atom with the help of atomic models. Each of these models had their own merits and demerits and were pivotal to the development of the modern atomic model. The most notable contributions to the field were by the scientist’s John Dalton, J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, and Niels Bohr. Their ideas on the structure of the atom are discussed in this subsection. Free download PDF Atomic Structure Hand Written Note For BSC.
Electronic Configuration of an Atom
The electrons have to be filled in the s, p, d, f in accordance with the following rule.
- Aufbau’s principle: The filling of electrons should take place in accordance with the ascending order of energy of orbitals: Lower energy orbital should be filled first and higher energy levels. The energy of orbital α(p + l) value it two orbitals have same (n + l) value, E α n Ascending order of energy 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, . . .
- Pauli’s exclusion principle: No two electrons can have all the four quantum numbers to be the same or, if two electrons have to placed in an energy state they should be placed with opposite spies.
- Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity: In the case of filling degenerate (same energy) orbitals, all the degenerate orbitals have to be singly filled first and then only pairing has to happen.
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