Here, we provided to Ionic Solids Hand Written Note For BSC. Made up of positive and negative ions and held together by electrostatic attractions. They’re characterized by very high melting points and brittleness and are poor conductors in the solid-state. An example of an ionic solid is table salt, NaCl. Free download PDF Ionic Solids Hand Written Note For BSC.
One of the ionic solids you will be familiar with is sodium chloride (or common salt) without which we could not live. Sodium chloride forms when the single electron from the valence shell of a sodium atom is transferred to the valence shell of a chlorine atom. Both atoms achieve a full outer electron shell as a consequence but become ionized in the process. The sodium atoms acquire a positive charge and the chlorine atoms acquire a negative charge. Free download PDF Ionic Solids Hand Written Note For BSC.
It is the electrostatic attraction between these positively and negatively charged ions that holds the crystalline structure of an ionic solid together. Like network covalent solids, ionic solids tend to be hard and brittle and have high melting and boiling points because of the strength of the bonds holding the atoms together within the crystal lattice. It takes a lot of energy to break those bonds down. Having said that, ionic bonds are generally not as strong as covalent bonds. Free download PDF Ionic Solids Hand Written Note For BSC.
BOOK NAME – IONIC SOLIDS HAND WRITTEN NOTE FOR BSC
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Each ion in an ionic solid is surrounded by ions of the opposite charge in a three-dimensional crystal lattice. In sodium chloride, for example, each sodium ion (Na +) is surrounded by six chlorides (Cl -) ions. Similarly, each chloride ion is surrounded by six sodium ions. In another ionic solid, calcium fluoride (CaF2 ), each calcium ion (Ca +) is surrounded by eight fluorides (F -) ions, while each fluoride ion is surrounded by four calcium ions. Free download PDF Ionic Solids Hand Written Note For BSC.
The number of oppositely charged ions surrounding an ion in an ionic solid is called its coordination number. Thus, in sodium chloride, the coordination number of both Na+ and Cl- is six (6). In calcium fluoride, the coordination number of Ca+ is eight (8), while the coordination number of F – is four (4). Free download PDF Ionic Solids Hand Written Note For BSC.
The main differences between the various ionic compounds, in terms of physical properties such as melting and boiling points, depends on the strength of the ionic bonds holding them together. This will depend chiefly on two things: the number of charges on each ion, and the size of the ions. Free download PDF Ionic Solids Hand Written Note For BSC.
Ionic solids are similar to network solids in one way: There are no distinct molecules. But instead of atoms held together by covalent bonds, ionic solids are composed of positively and negatively charged ions held together by ionic bonds. (See our Chemical Bonding module for more about ionic bonding.) Free download PDF Ionic Solids Hand Written Note For BSC.
Table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) is a common ionic solid, as is just about anything that is called a “salt.” Simple salts usually consist of one metal ion and one non-metal ion. In the case of sodium chloride, sodium is the metal and chloride is the non-metal. Salts can also consist of more complex ions, such as ammonium sulfate, whose components ammonium (NH4+) and sulfate (SO42-), are individually held together by covalent bonds and attracted to each other through ionic bonds. Free download PDF Ionic Solids Hand Written Note For BSC.
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