Electromagnetic Theory & Black Body Radiation Hand Written Note:
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Electromagnetic theory is a discipline concerned with the study of charges at rest and in motion. Electromagnetic principles are fundamental to the study of electrical engineering and physics. Electromagnetic theory is also indispensable to the understanding, analysis, and design of various electrical, electromechanical, and electronic systems. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Electromagnetic theory is a prerequisite for a wide spectrum of studies in the field of Electrical Sciences and Physics. Electromagnetic theory can be thought of as a generalization of circuit theory. There are certain situations that can be handled exclusively in terms of field theory. In electromagnetic theory, the quantities involved can be categorized as source quantities and field quantities. The Source of the electromagnetic field is electric charges: either at rest or in motion. However, an electromagnetic field may cause a redistribution of charges that in turn change the field, and hence the separation of cause and effect is not always visible. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Magnetism and electricity were once considered as separate forces. However in the year 1873, Clerk Maxwell, a Scottish physicist developed a unified theory of electromagnetism. Its study deals with how the electrically charged particles interact among themselves and with the magnetic field. The main electromagnetic interactions are provided in the points mentioned below. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
- Magnetic poles come in pairs that repel and attract each other, just like electric charges do.
- The force of repulsion or attraction between two electric charges is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the particles.
- An electric field in motion produces a magnetic field.
- A wire with an electric current produces a magnetic field whose direction depends on the direction of the electric current.
Table of Content:
- Dynamics of Charged Particles in Static & Uniform Electromagnetic Fields
- Electromagnetic Induction
- Electromagnetic Waves in Free Space
- Applications of Electromagnetic Waves
- Potential & Field Formulation for Time-Varying Fields
- Radiation Form Moving Charges
An electromagnetic field (also EM field) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field produced by moving electric charges. It is the field described by classical electrodynamics and is the classical counterpart to the quantized electromagnetic field tensor in quantum electrodynamics. The electromagnetic field propagates at the speed of light (in fact, this field can be identified as light) and interacts with charges and currents. Its quantum counterpart is one of the four fundamental forces of nature (the others are gravitation, the weak interaction and strong interaction.) Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field and a magnetic field. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents); these two are often described as the sources of the field. The way in which charges and currents interact with the electromagnetic field is described by Maxwell’s equations and the Lorentz force law. The force created by the electric field is much stronger than the force created by the magnetic field. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
From a classical perspective in the history of electromagnetism, the electromagnetic field can be regarded as a smooth, continuous field, propagated in a wavelike manner. By contrast, from the perspective of quantum field theory, this field is seen as quantized; meaning that the free quantum field (i.e. non-interacting field) can be expressed as the Fourier sum of creation and annihilation operators in energy-momentum space while the effects of the interacting quantum field may be analyzed in perturbation theory via the S-matrix with the aid of a whole host of mathematical technologies such as the Dyson series, Wick’s theorem, correlation functions, time-evolution operators, Feynman diagrams, etc. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Note that the quantized field is still spatially continuous; its energy states however are discrete (the field’s energy states must not be confused with its energy values, which are continuous; the quantum field’s creation operators create multiple discrete states of energy called photons.) Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
BOOK NAME – EMT & BBR HAND WRITTEN NOTE PART 2
AUTHOR – ABHIJEET AGARWAL
SIZE – 11MB
PAGES – 86
Black Body Radiation:
Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, emitted by a black body (an idealized opaque, non-reflective body). It has a specific spectrum of wavelengths, inversely related to an intensity that depends only on the body’s temperature, which is assumed for the sake of calculations and theory to be uniform and constant. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
The thermal radiation spontaneously emitted by many ordinary objects can be approximated as black-body radiation. A perfectly insulated enclosure that is in thermal equilibrium internally contains black-body radiation and will emit it through a hole made in its wall, provided the hole is small enough to have a negligible effect upon the equilibrium. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
In a dark room, a black body at room temperature appears black because most of the energy it radiates is in the infrared spectrum and cannot be perceived by the human eye. Since the human eye cannot perceive light waves below the visible frequency, a black body at the lowest just faintly visible temperature subjectively appears grey, even though its objective physical spectrum peak is in the infrared range. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
The human eye perceives only black and white at low light levels as the light-sensitive retinal rods are more sensitive than cones. When the object becomes a little hotter, it appears dull red. As its temperature increases further it becomes bright red, orange, yellow, white, and ultimately blue-white. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Although planets and stars are neither in thermal equilibrium with their surroundings nor perfect black bodies, black-body radiation is used as a first approximation for the energy they emit. Black holes are near-perfect black bodies, in the sense that they absorb all the radiation that falls on them. It has been proposed that they emit black-body radiation (called Hawking radiation), with a temperature that depends on the mass of the black hole. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
What is a Blackbody?
A black body is an idealization in physics that pictures a body that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation incident on it irrespective of its frequency or angle. Through the second law of thermodynamics that a body always tries to stay in thermal equilibrium. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
To stay in thermal equilibrium, a black body must emit radiation at the same rate as it absorbs and so it must also be a good emitter of radiation, emitting electromagnetic waves of as many frequencies as it can absorb i.e. all the frequencies. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
What Is Blackbody Radiation?
The radiation emitted by the blackbody is known as blackbody radiation. Below is the diagram of the spectral lines obtained from the blackbody radiation. The x-axis represents the wavelength while the y-axis represents the distribution of the spectral line. These spectral lines are obtained for different temperature ranges. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Characteristics of Blackbody Radiation:
The characteristics of the blackbody radiation are explained with the help of the following laws:
- Wien’s displacement law
- Planck’s law
- Stefan-Boltzmann law
The term black body was introduced by Gustav Kirchhoff in 1860. Black-body radiation is also called thermal radiation, cavity radiation, complete radiation, or temperature radiation. Free download PDF EMT And BBR Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
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