Here, We provided to Thermodynamics Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal. Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat and temperature, and their relation to energy, work, radiation, and properties of matter. The behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics which convey a quantitative description using measurable macroscopic physical quantities, but may be explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics. Free download PDF Thermodynamics Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Historically, thermodynamics developed out of a desire to increase the efficiency of early steam engines, particularly through the work of French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1824) who believed that engine efficiency was the key that could help France win the Napoleonic Wars. Free download PDF Thermodynamics Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Scots-Irish physicist Lord Kelvin was the first to formulate a concise definition of thermodynamics in 1854 which stated, “Thermo-dynamics is the subject of the relation of heat to forces acting between contiguous parts of bodies, and the relation of heat to electrical agency.” Free download PDF Thermodynamics Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
The initial application of thermodynamics to mechanical heat engines was quickly extended to the study of chemical compounds and chemical reactions. Chemical thermodynamics studies the nature of the role of entropy in the process of chemical reactions and has provided the bulk of expansion and knowledge of the field. Other formulations of thermodynamics emerged. Free download PDF Thermodynamics Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Statistical thermodynamics, or statistical mechanics, concerns itself with statistical predictions of the collective motion of particles from their microscopic behavior. In 1909, Constantin Carathéodory presented a purely mathematical approach in an axiomatic formulation, a description often referred to as geometrical thermodynamics. Free download PDF Thermodynamics Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
BOOK NAME – THERMODYNAMICS HAND WRITTEN NOTE PART 2
AUTHOR – ABHIJEET AGARWAL
SIZE – 11MB
PAGES – 73
What are the Laws of Thermodynamics?
The laws of thermodynamics define the fundamental physical quantities like energy, temperature, and entropy that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium. The laws represent how these quantities behave under various circumstances.
How many laws of thermodynamics are there?
There are four laws of thermodynamics and are given below:
- Zeroth law of thermodynamics
- The first law of thermodynamics
- The second law of thermodynamics
- Third law of thermodynamics
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:
The Zeroth Law states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with some third body, then they are also in equilibrium with each other. This establishes temperature as a fundamental and measurable property of matter.
First Law of Thermodynamics:
The First Law states that the total increase in the energy of a system is equal to the increase in thermal energy plus the work done on the system. This states that heat is a form of energy and is therefore subject to the principle of conservation.
Second Law of Thermodynamics:
The Second Law states that heat energy cannot be transferred from a body at a lower temperature to a body at a higher temperature without the addition of energy. This is why it costs money to run an air conditioner.
Third Law of Thermodynamics:
The Third Law states that the entropy of a pure crystal at absolute zero is zero. As explained above, entropy is sometimes called “waste energy,” i.e., the energy that is unable to do work, and since there is no heat energy whatsoever at absolute zero, there can be no waste energy. Entropy is also a measure of the disorder in a system, and while a perfect crystal is by definition perfectly ordered, any positive value of temperature means there is motion within the crystal, which causes the disorder. For these reasons, there can be no physical system with lower entropy, so entropy always has a positive value.
The science of thermodynamics has been developed over centuries, and its principles apply to nearly every device ever invented. Its importance in modern technology cannot be overstated. Free download PDF Thermodynamics Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
In Physics, thermodynamics deals with temperature, heat, and their relation to energy, radiation, work, and properties of matter. The energy can be of any form such as electrical, mechanical, or chemical energy. William Thomson coined the term thermodynamics in 1749. It is derived from two Greek words “thermal” meaning heat, and “dynamics” meaning powerful. Free download PDF Thermodynamics Hand Written Note Part 2 By Abhijeet Agarwal.
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