**What Is Modern Physics?**

Modern physics is a branch of physics that deals with post-Newtonian concepts in the world of physics. It is based on the two major breakthroughs of the twentieth century: Relativity and Quantum Mechanics.

Modern physics often involves an advanced description of nature through new theories that were different from the classical descriptions and involves elements of quantum mechanics and Einsteinian relativity. For instance, quantum effects typically involve distances related to atoms. On the other hand, relativistic effects typically involve velocities compared to the speed of light.

**
Who Is The Father Of Modern Physics?**

Albert Einstein is known as the father of modern physics. He was a 20th-century scientist, who came up with the most important ideas. One of the important works of Albert Einstein is the theory of relativity and the famous equation E=mc2.

He was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1921 for his achievements in theoretical physics, particularly discovering the laws of the photoelectric effect

Modern physics is an effort to understand the underlying processes of the interactions with matter, utilizing the tools of science and engineering. In general, the term is used to refer to any branch of physics either developed in the early 20th century and onwards, or branches greatly influenced by early 20th century physics. Modern physics can be considered consisting of classical physics, the Standard Model of physics, and theoretical physics including quantum physics, relativity, and more. Low velocities and everyday distances are usually considered in the realm of classical physics.

The Standard Model of physics is based on laboratory observations from laboratories like CERN and other laboratories and does not include a theory for gravitation such as relativity or other purely theoretical or mathematical physics.

**Table of Content:**

- Special Theory of Relativity
- Modern Physics
- Tools & Postulates of Quantum Mechanics
- Application of Quantum Mechanics in Cartesian Coordinate
- Statistical Physics
- Basic Nuclear Properties
- Radio Active Decay
- Nuclear Reaction

Modern physics, however, today also involves theoretical and extreme conditions represented by quantum effects and relativity typically involving distances comparable to atoms (roughly 10−9 m), while relativistic effects typically involve velocities comparable to the speed of light (roughly 3×108 m/s). In general, quantum and relativistic effects are believed to exist across all scales, although these effects can be very small in everyday life.

**BOOK INFO**

**BOOK NAME** – MODERN PHYSICS

**AUTHOR** – FIZIKS INSTITUTE

**SIZE** – 8.3MB

**PAGES** – 293

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fiziks is a coaching institute for Physics Graduates and Postgraduates. fiziks provide coaching for competitive examinations like CSIR-NET/JRF, GATE, IIT-JAM/IISc, JEST, TIFR, and other M.Sc Entrance like JNU, BHU, DU, HCU, ISM Dhanbad, NISER, IISER. fiziks also provides guidance for GRE (Physics) and public sector jobs like BARC, DRDO, ONGC, ISRO, etc.

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In a literal sense, the term modern physics means up-to-date physics. In this sense, a significant portion of so-called classical physics is modern. However, since roughly 1890, new discoveries have caused significant paradigm shifts: the advent of quantum mechanics (QM) and theoretical physics such as relativity (ER). Physics that incorporates elements of either QM or ER (or both) is said to be modern physics. It is in this latter sense that the term is generally used.

Modern physics is often encountered when dealing with extreme conditions. Quantum mechanical effects tend to appear when dealing with “lows” (low temperatures, small distances), while relativistic effects tend to appear when dealing with “highs” (high velocities, large distances), the “middles” being classical behavior. For example, when analyzing the behavior of a gas at room temperature, most phenomena will involve the (classical) Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. However near absolute zero, the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution fails to account for the observed behavior of the gas, and the (modern) Fermi–Dirac or Bose-Einstein distributions have to be used instead.

German physicists Albert Einstein, founder of the theory of relativity, and Max Planck, founder of quantum theory Very often, it is possible to find – or “retrieve” – the classical behavior from the modern description by analyzing the modern description at low speeds and large distances (by taking a limit, or by making an approximation). When doing so, the result is called the classical limit.

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