Here, We provided to Geometrical Optics Hand Written Note By Abhijeet Agarwal. Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behavior of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties. Free download PDF Geometrical Optics Hand Written Note By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Physical optics is a more comprehensive model of light, which includes wave effects such as diffraction and interference that cannot be accounted for in geometric optics. Historically, the ray-based model of light was developed first, followed by the wave model of light. Progress in electromagnetic theory in the 19th century led to the discovery that light waves were in fact electromagnetic radiation. Free download PDF Geometrical Optics Hand Written Note By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Some phenomena depend on the fact that light has both wave-like and particle-like properties. The explanation of these effects requires quantum mechanics. When considering light’s particle-like properties, the light is modeled as a collection of particles called “photons”. Quantum optics deals with the application of quantum mechanics to optical systems. Free download PDF Geometrical Optics Hand Written Note By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Optical science is relevant to and studied in many related disciplines including astronomy, various engineering fields, photography, and medicine (particularly ophthalmology and optometry). Practical applications of optics are found in a variety of technologies and everyday objects, including mirrors, lenses, telescopes, microscopes, lasers, and fiber optics. Free download PDF Geometrical Optics Hand Written Note By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Like all the different types of light, the spectrum of visible light is absorbed and emitted in the form of tiny packets of energy called photons. These photons have both the properties of a wave as well as a particle. Free download PDF Geometrical Optics Hand Written Note By Abhijeet Agarwal.
BOOK NAME – GEOMETRICAL OPTICS HAND WRITTEN NOTE
AUTHOR – ABHIJEET AGARWAL
SIZE – 35MB
PAGES – 253
What is Geometric Optics?
When a ray of light is reflected by some angle by a barrier in its pathway, it is said that the light beam is rebounded and this procedure is known as a reflection of light.
When the beam of light crosses from one medium to the other, it diverges slightly from its route. This deviation hinges over the medium where the light is crossing through. This procedure is termed as the refraction of light.
Snell’s Law (Laws of Refraction and Reflection):
The Laws of Reflection in Geometric Optics:
The conduct of the ray of light that is rebounded by a smooth mirror is judged based on the laws of reflection. But primarily, one needs to know the basic terms. Free download PDF Geometrical Optics Hand Written Note By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Light approaching a mirror is termed an incident ray and the beam of light that is reflected by the mirror is termed as a reflected ray. At the spot of reflection, the perpendicular that is drawn is termed as normal. The angle amidst the incident ray and normal is the angle of incidence, while the angle amidst the reflected ray and normal is the angle of reflection.
Refractive Index of the Medium in Geometric Optics:
The refractive index is denoted by ‘n’ and described as a dimensionless number which shows that the light or any radiation travels through a medium. It is mathematically expressed as:
n = c/v
‘v’ indicates the phase velocity of light in a medium, and
‘c’ indicates the speed of light in a vacuum.
Geometrical optics, or ray optics, is a model of optics that describes light propagation in terms of rays. The ray in geometric optics is an abstraction useful for approximating the paths along which light propagates under certain circumstances. Free download PDF Geometrical Optics Hand Written Note By Abhijeet Agarwal.
The simplifying assumptions of geometrical optics include light rays:
- propagate in straight-line paths as they travel in a homogeneous medium
- bend, and in particular circumstances may split in two, at the interface between two dissimilar media
- follow curved paths in a medium in which the refractive index changes
- may be absorbed or reflected.
Geometrical optics does not account for certain optical effects such as diffraction and interference. This simplification is useful in practice; it is an excellent approximation when the wavelength is small compared to the size of structures with which the light interacts. The techniques are particularly useful in describing geometrical aspects of imaging, including optical aberrations. Free download PDF Geometrical Optics Hand Written Note By Abhijeet Agarwal.
Applications of Optics:
The properties of optics are applied in various fields of Physics-
The refraction phenomenon is applied in the case of lenses (Convex and concave) for the purpose of forming an image of the object.
Geometrical optics is used in studies of how the images form in an optical system.
In medical applications, it is used in the optical diagnosis of the mysteries of the human body.
It is used in the therapeutical and surgeries of the human tissues.
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