Main Group Elements Note For IIT JAM/CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE

Main Group Elements:

Here, We provide to Main Group Elements Note For IIT JAM/CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE. Main Group Elements Note is very helpful for the aspirants of CSIR UGC NET Chemistry, IIT JAM Chemistry, GATE Chemistry, NBHM, TIFR, and all different tests with a similar syllabus. Main Group Elements Note is designed for the students who are making ready for numerous national degree aggressive examinations and additionally evokes to go into Ph. D. Applications by using manner of qualifying the numerous the front examination. Free download PDF Main Group Elements Note For IIT JAM/CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.

What is Elements?

Elements constitute the simplest chemical substances in which all the atoms are exactly the same.

main group elements note for iit jam/csir-ugc-net/jrf/gateWhat are the Elements?

We can define elements as a species of atoms that have the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei. Although an element’s atoms have the same number of protons, they can have different numbers of neutrons and hence different masses.

Isotopes: When atoms of the same element have different numbers of neutrons, they are known as isotopes. As of now, there are 118 elements, of which the first 94 are naturally occurring while the remaining 24 are synthetic elements.

Elements are complete chemical substances which relate to a single entry in the modern periodic table. Elements consist of one kind of atoms only. They cannot be broken down into simpler fragments and can exist as atoms or as molecules. Elements are represented by symbols that are assigned by IUPAC. For example, Oxygen is represented by O, Aluminium is represented by Al, etc. Free download PDF Main Group Elements Note For IIT JAM/CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.

Types of Elements:

The elements are arranged in the periodic table and are split depending upon their groups as either metallic or non-metallic. Metallic is further classified into Main Group Metals, Transition Metals, and f-block metals. These are again further divided depending upon their properties.

In chemistry and atomic physics, the main group is the group of elements (sometimes called the representative elements) whose lightest members are represented by helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine as arranged in the periodic table of the elements. The main group includes the elements (except hydrogen, which is sometimes not included) in groups 1 and 2 (s-block), and groups 13 to 18 (p-block). The s-block elements are primarily characterized by one main oxidation state, and the p-block elements, when they have multiple oxidation states, often have common oxidation states separated by two units. Free download PDF Main Group Elements Note For IIT JAM/CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.

Main-group elements (with some of the lighter transition metals) are the most abundant elements on earth, in the solar system, and in the universe.

Group 12 elements are often considered to be transition metals; however, zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) share some properties of both groups, and many scientists believe they should be included in the main group. Occasionally, even the group 3 elements, as well as the lanthanides and actinides, have been included, because especially the group 3 elements and lanthanides are electropositive elements with only one main oxidation state like the group 1 and 2 elements. Free download PDF Main Group Elements Note For IIT JAM/CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.

The position of the actinides is more questionable, but the most common and stable of them, thorium (Th) and uranium (U), are similar to main-group elements as thorium is an electropositive element with only one main oxidation state (+4), and uranium has two main ones separated by two oxidation units (+4 and +6). Free download PDF Main Group Elements Note For IIT JAM/CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.

In older nomenclature, the main-group elements are groups IA and IIA, and groups IIIB to 0 (CAS groups IIIA to VIIA). Group 12 is labeled as group IIB in both systems. Group 3 is labeled as group IIIA in the older nomenclature (CAS group IIIB). Free download PDF Main Group Elements Note For IIT JAM/CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.

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