What is Spectroscopy?
Spectroscopy means the dispersion of light into component colors. In simple words, it is a method to measure how much light is absorbed by a chemical substance and at what intensity of light passes through it. As per analytical science, every element or compound has a unique characteristic spectrum. Each compound absorbs and disperses light over a certain range of wavelengths.
Electromagnetic radiation is the continuous spectrum of energy-bearing waves ranging from extremely short waves, such as high-energy X-rays (with wavelengths of about 10 nanometres [nm]), to very long, low-energy waves such as radio waves (with wavelengths of one meter [m] or more). Visible light, for example, is the range of electromagnetic radiation detectable by human vision, with wavelengths of roughly 400 to 700 nm. Objects appear colored when they absorb visible light of certain wavelengths, and those absorbed wavelengths are consequently absent from light that passes from the colored object to the eyes.
Molecules are able to absorb light of certain wavelengths because the energy content of the absorbed light is the precise value needed to cause a molecule to be excited from one energy state to a higher one. The myriad energy levels in a molecule are said to be quantized because each one differs from another by a discrete, measurable energy value, just as each step in a stairway is a fixed height above, or below, all others. Thus, by measuring the wavelengths of the electromagnetic radiation absorbed by a molecule, it is possible to gain information about the various energy levels within it. Free download PDF Spectroscopy Note For IIT JAM/CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.
This information can then be correlated with specific details of molecular structure. Instruments called spectrometers measure the wavelengths of light that are absorbed by molecules in various regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The most important spectroscopic techniques for structure determination are ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A fourth technique, termed mass spectrometry, does not depend on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, but it is valuable for the information it provides about the number and type of atoms present in a molecule. The following sections briefly describe the various applications of these techniques for organic compounds; for more information, see spectroscopy.
Types of Spectroscopy:
- Acoustic resonance
- X-ray photoelectron
- Circular Dichroism
- IR Spectroscopy (Infrared spectroscopy)
- Raman spectroscopy
BOOK NAME – SPECTROSCOPY NOTE FOR IIT JAM/CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE
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