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Atomic structure refers to the structure of atom comprising of a nucleus (center) in which the protons (positively charged) and neutrons(neutral) are present. The negatively charged particles called electrons revolve around the center of the nucleus. The history of atomic structure and quantum mechanics dates back to the times of Democritus, the man who first proposed that matter is composed of atoms
The study about the structure of the atom gives a great insight into the entire class of chemical reactions, bonds, and their physical properties. The first scientific theory of atomic structure was proposed by John Dalton in the 1800s. Free download PDF Atomic Structure And Chemical Bonding For CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.
The advances in atomic structure and quantum mechanics have led to the discovery of other fundamental particles. The discovery of subatomic particles has been the base for many other discoveries and inventions. The atomic structure of an element refers to the constitution of its nucleus and the arrangement of the electrons around it. Primarily, the atomic structure of matter is made up of protons, electrons, and neutrons. Free download PDF Atomic Structure And Chemical Bonding For CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.
The protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of the atom, which is surrounded by the electrons belonging to the atom. The atomic number of an element describes the total number of protons in its nucleus. Free download PDF Atomic Structure And Chemical Bonding For CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.
Neutral atoms have equal numbers of protons and electrons. However, atoms may gain or lose electrons in order to increase their stability, and the resulting charged entity is called an ion. Free download PDF Atomic Structure And Chemical Bonding For CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.
Atoms of different elements have different atomic structures because they contain different numbers of protons and electrons. This is the reason for the unique characteristics of different elements.
BOOK NAME – ATOMIC STRUCTURE & CHEMICAL BONDING FOR CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE
AUTHOR – CAREER ENDEAVOUR
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In the 18th and 19th centuries, many scientists attempted to explain the structure of the atom with the help of atomic models. Each of these models had their own merits and demerits and were pivotal to the development of the modern atomic model. The most notable contributions to the field were by the scientist’s John Dalton, J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, and Niels Bohr. Their ideas on the structure of the atom are discussed in this subsection.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions, or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions as in ionic bonds or through the sharing of electrons as in covalent bonds. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are “strong bonds” or “primary bonds” such as covalent, ionic and metallic bonds, and “weak bonds” or “secondary bonds” such as dipole-dipole interactions, the London dispersion force, and hydrogen bonding. Free download PDF Atomic Structure And Chemical Bonding For CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.
Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted to electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond. Due to the matter wave nature of electrons and their smaller mass, they must occupy a much larger amount of volume compared with the nuclei, and this volume occupied by the electrons keeps the atomic nuclei in a bond relatively far apart, as compared with the size of the nuclei themselves.
In general, strong chemical bonding is associated with the sharing or transfer of electrons between the participating atoms. The atoms in molecules, crystals, metals, and diatomic gases—indeed most of the physical environment around us—are held together by chemical bonds, which dictate the structure and the bulk properties of matter. Free download PDF Atomic Structure And Chemical Bonding For CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.
Chemical Bonding refers to the formation of a chemical bond between two or more atoms, molecules, or ions to give rise to a chemical compound. These chemical bonds are what keep the atoms together in the resulting compound. Free download PDF Atomic Structure And Chemical Bonding For CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.
The attractive force which holds various constituents (atom, ions, etc.) together and stabilizes them by the overall loss of energy is known as chemical bonding. Therefore, it can be understood that chemical compounds are reliant on the strength of the chemical bonds between its constituents; The stronger the bonding between the constituents, the more stable the resulting compound would be.
The opposite also holds true; if the chemical bonding between the constituents is weak, the resulting compound would lack stability and would easily undergo another reaction to give a more stable chemical compound (containing stronger bonds). To find stability, the atoms try to lose their energy. Free download PDF Atomic Structure And Chemical Bonding For CSIR-UGC-NET/JRF/GATE.
Whenever matter interacts with another form of matter, a force is exerted on one by the other. When the forces are attractive in nature, the energy decreases. When the forces are repulsive nature, the energy increases. The attractive force that binds two atoms together is known as the chemical bond.
Types of Chemical Bonds:
When substances participate in chemical bonding and yield compounds, the stability of the resulting compound can be gauged by the type of chemical bonds it contains.
The type of chemical bonds formed vary in strength and properties. There are 4 primary types of chemical bonds that are formed by atoms or molecules to yield compounds. These types of chemical bonds include:
- Ionic Bonds
- Covalent Bonds
- Hydrogen Bonds
- Polar Bonds
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CSIR NET Exam Pattern 2020:
NTA has released the CSIR NET Exam Pattern for all the five subjects. Candidates will have to pick any one subject and apply for the same. The CSIR UGC NET exam pattern and marking scheme are different for all the subjects. However, Part A syllabus is the same for all subjects.
- CSIR NET question paper for each subject is divided into three parts namely, Part A, Part B, Part C.
- All three sections are compulsory.
- There will be no break between the three sections.
- All 3 parts will have only Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs).
- The CSIR NET 2020 will be conducted for a total of 200 marks.
- The exam will be held for a duration of 3 hours.
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