Here, We provided to Best Mass Transfer Hand Written Note. Mass transfer is the net movement of mass from one location, usually meaning stream, phase, fraction, or component, to another. Mass transfer occurs in many processes, such as absorption, evaporation, drying, precipitation, membrane filtration, and distillation.
Some common examples of mass transfer processes are the evaporation of water from a pond to the atmosphere, the purification of blood in the kidneys and liver, and the distillation of alcohol. In industrial processes, mass transfer operations include separation of chemical components in distillation columns, absorbers such as scrubbers or stripping, adsorbers such as activated carbon beds, and liquid-liquid extraction.
Mass transfer is often coupled to additional transport processes, for instance in industrial cooling towers. These towers couple heat transfer to mass transfer by allowing hot water to flow in contact with air. The water is cooled by expelling some of its content in the form of water vapor.
Type of Mass Transfer:
- Molecular diffusion
- Turbulent diffusion
BOOK NAME – BEST MASS TRANSFER HAND WRITTEN NOTE
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Molecular diffusion, often simply called diffusion, is the thermal motion of all (liquid or gas) particles at temperatures above absolute zero. The rate of this movement is a function of temperature, the viscosity of the fluid, and the size (mass) of the particles. Diffusion explains the net flux of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration.
Once the concentrations are equal the molecules continue to move, but since there is no concentration gradient the process of molecular diffusion has ceased and is instead governed by the process of self-diffusion, originating from the random motion of the molecules. The result of diffusion is a gradual mixing of material such that the distribution of molecules is uniform.
Since the molecules are still in motion, but an equilibrium has been established, the end result of molecular diffusion is called a “dynamic equilibrium”. In a phase with uniform temperature, absent external net forces acting on the particles, the diffusion process will eventually result in complete mixing.
Consider two systems; S1 and S2 at the same temperature and capable of exchanging particles. If there is a change in the potential energy of a system; for example μ1>μ2 (μ is Chemical potential) an energy flow will occur from S1 to S2, because nature always prefers low energy and maximum entropy. Molecular diffusion is typically described mathematically using Fick’s laws of diffusion.
Turbulent diffusion is the transport of mass, heat, or momentum within a system due to random and chaotic time-dependent motions. It occurs when turbulent fluid systems reach critical conditions in response to shear flow, which results from a combination of steep concentration gradients, density gradients, and high velocities.
It occurs much more rapidly than molecular diffusion and is therefore extremely important for problems concerning mixing and transport in systems dealing with combustion, contaminants, dissolved oxygen, and solutions in the industry. In these fields, turbulent diffusion acts as an excellent process for quickly reducing the concentrations of a species in a fluid or environment, in cases where this is needed for rapid mixing during processing, or rapid pollutant or contaminant reduction for safety.
However, it has been extremely difficult to develop a concrete and fully functional model that can be applied to the diffusion of a species in all turbulent systems due to the inability to characterize both an instantaneous and predicted fluid velocity simultaneously. In turbulent flow, this is a result of several characteristics such as unpredictability, rapid diffusivity, high levels of fluctuating vorticity, and dissipation of kinetic energy.
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