Kinetic Theory Of Gases:
Here, We provided to Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour. The kinetic theory of gases is a historically significant, but simple, model of the thermodynamic behavior of gases, with which many principal concepts of thermodynamics were established. The model describes a gas as a large number of identical submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant, rapid, random motion. Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
The kinetic theory of gases explains the macroscopic properties of gases, such as volume, pressure, and temperature, as well as transport properties such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and mass diffusivity. The model also accounts for related phenomena, such as Brownian motion. Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
Kinetic theory of gases is a theoretical model that describes the molecular composition of the gas in terms of a large number of submicroscopic particles which include atoms and molecules. Further, the theory explains that gas pressure arises due to particles colliding with each other and the walls of the container. Kinetic theory of gases also defines properties such as temperature, viscosity, and thermal conductivity and all these properties are related to the microscopic phenomenon. Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
The significance of the theory is that it helps in developing a correlation between the macroscopic properties and the microscopic phenomenon. In simple terms, the kinetic theory of gases also helps us study the action of the molecules. Generally, the molecules of gases are always in motion and they tend to collide with each other and the walls of the containers.
Table of Content:
- What is the Kinetic Theory of Gases?
- Kinetic Theory of Gases Assumptions
- Kinetic Theory of Gases Postulates
- Understanding Gas Behaviour
- Maxwell and Boltzmann Distribution of Energy and Velocity
Kinetic theory of gases explains the three macroscopic properties of a gas in terms of the microscopic nature of atoms and molecules making up the gas. Usually, the physical properties of solids and liquids can be described by their, size, shape, mass, volume, etc. However, when we talk about gases, they have no definite shape, size while mass and volume are not directly measurable. The Kinetic theory of gases is useful and can be applied in this case. Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
With the help of the kinetic theory of gases, the physical properties of any gas cane defined generally in terms of three measurable macroscopic properties of pressure, volume, and temperature of the container where the gas is stored or present. We will learn about this concept in detail below. Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
- Kinetic Theory Of Gases
- The Gas Laws & The First Law Of Thermodynamics
- The Carnot Engine
- The Entropy & The Second Law Of Thermodynamics
- Thermodynamics Potentials & Maxwell Relations
- The Phase Transition
- Statistical Mechanics
BOOK NAME – KINETIC THEORY OF GASES & THERMODYNAMICS
AUTHOR – CAREER ENDEAVOUR
SIZE – 3.7MB
PAGES – 152
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Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat and temperature, and their relation to energy, work, radiation, and properties of matter. The behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics which convey a quantitative description using measurable macroscopic physical quantities, but may be explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics. Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, chemical engineering, and mechanical engineering, but also in fields as complex as meteorology Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
Historically, thermodynamics developed out of a desire to increase the efficiency of early steam engines, particularly through the work of French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1824) who believed that engine efficiency was the key that could help France win the Napoleonic Wars. Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
Scots-Irish physicist Lord Kelvin was the first to formulate a concise definition of thermodynamics in 1854 which stated, “Thermo-dynamics is the subject of the relation of heat to forces acting between contiguous parts of bodies, and the relation of heat to electrical agency.” Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
The initial application of thermodynamics to mechanical heat engines was quickly extended to the study of chemical compounds and chemical reactions. Chemical thermodynamics studies the nature of the role of entropy in the process of chemical reactions and has provided the bulk of expansion and knowledge of the field. Other formulations of thermodynamics emerged. Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
Statistical thermodynamics, or statistical mechanics, concerns itself with statistical predictions of the collective motion of particles from their microscopic behavior. In 1909, Constantin Carathéodory presented a purely mathematical approach in an axiomatic formulation, a description often referred to as geometrical thermodynamics. Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
What are the Laws of Thermodynamics?
The laws of thermodynamics define the fundamental physical quantities like energy, temperature, and entropy that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium. The laws represent how these quantities behave under various circumstances.
How many laws of thermodynamics are there?
There are four laws of thermodynamics and are given below:
- Zeroth law of thermodynamics
- The first law of thermodynamics
- The second law of thermodynamics
- Third law of thermodynamics
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:
The Zeroth Law states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with some third body, then they are also in equilibrium with each other. This establishes temperature as a fundamental and measurable property of matter.
First Law of Thermodynamics:
The First Law states that the total increase in the energy of a system is equal to the increase in thermal energy plus the work done on the system. This states that heat is a form of energy and is therefore subject to the principle of conservation.
Second Law of Thermodynamics:
The Second Law states that heat energy cannot be transferred from a body at a lower temperature to a body at a higher temperature without the addition of energy. This is why it costs money to run an air conditioner.
Third Law of Thermodynamics:
The Third Law states that the entropy of a pure crystal at absolute zero is zero. As explained above, entropy is sometimes called “waste energy,” i.e., the energy that is unable to do work, and since there is no heat energy whatsoever at absolute zero, there can be no waste energy. Entropy is also a measure of the disorder in a system, and while a perfect crystal is by definition perfectly ordered, any positive value of temperature means there is motion within the crystal, which causes the disorder. For these reasons, there can be no physical system with lower entropy, so entropy always has a positive value. Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
The science of thermodynamics has been developed over centuries, and its principles apply to nearly every device ever invented. Its importance in modern technology cannot be overstated. Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
In Physics, thermodynamics deals with temperature, heat, and their relation to energy, radiation, work, and properties of matter. The energy can be of any form such as electrical, mechanical, or chemical energy. William Thomson coined the term thermodynamics in 1749. It is derived from two Greek words “thermal” meaning heat, and “dynamics” meaning powerful. Free download PDF Kinetic Theory Of Gases And Thermodynamics By Career Endeavour.
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