Here, we provided to The 100 Most Influential Scientists Of All Time. From the very first moment humans appeared on the planet, we have attempted to understand and explain the world around us. The most insatiably curious among us often have become scientists. The scientists discussed in this book have shaped humankind’s knowledge and laid the foundation for virtually every scientific discipline, from basic biology to blackholes. Some of these individuals were inclined to ponder questions about what was contained within the human body, while others were intrigued by celestial bodies. Free download PDF The 100 Most Influential Scientists Of All Time.
The influence wielded by the profiled men and women within the realm of scientific discovery becomes readily apparent as the reader delves deeper into each individual’s life and contributions to his or her chosen field. Oftentimes, more than one field has been the beneficiary of these brilliant minds. Many early scientists studied several different branches of science during their lifetimes. Free download PDF The 100 Most Influential Scientists Of All Time.
Indeed, as the founder of formal logic and the study of chemistry, biology, physics, zoology, botany, psychology, history, and literary theory in the Middle Ages, Aristotle is considered one of the greatest thinkers in history. Breakthroughs in the medical sciences have been numerous and extremely valuable. Study in this discipline begins with a contemporary of Aristotle’s named Hippocrates, who is commonly regarded as the “father of medicine.” Free download PDF The 100 Most Influential Scientists Of All Time.
Perhaps Hippocrates’ most enduring legacy to the field is the Hippocratic Oath, the ethical code that doctors still abide by today. By taking the Hippocratic oath, doctors pledge to Asclepius, the Greco-Roman god of medicine, that to the best of their knowledge and abilities, they will prescribe the best course of medical care for their patients. They also promise to, above all, cause no harm to any patient. The Greeks were not the only ones studying medicine. Free download PDF The 100 Most Influential Scientists Of All Time.
BOOK NAME – THE 100 MOST INFLUENTIAL SCIENTISTS OF ALL TIME
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The Muslim scholar Avicenna also advanced the discipline by writing one of the most influential medical texts in history, The Canon of Medicine. Avicenna also produced an encyclopedic volume describing Aristotle’sphilosophic and scientific thoughts about logic, biology, psychology, geometry, astronomy, music, and metaphysics. Free download PDF The 100 Most Influential Scientists Of All Time.
This hefty tome was called the Kitāb al-shifā (“Book of healing”). About 450 years later, a German-Swiss physician named Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus BombastusVon Hohenheim, or Paracelsus, once again advanced medical science by integrating medicine with chemistry and linking specific diseases to medications that could treat them. Free download PDF The 100 Most Influential Scientists Of All Time.
The Renaissance period brought to light the scientific genius of painter and sculptor Leonardo da Vinci. His drawings of presciently detailed flying machines preceded the advent of human flight by more than 300 years. What’smore, da Vinci’s drawings of the human anatomy structure not only illuminated many of the body’s features and functions but they also laid the foundation for modern scientific illustration. Free download PDF The 100 Most Influential Scientists Of All Time.
Anatomical drawings were also the purview of Flemish physician Andreas Vesalius. Unlike da Vinci’s illustrations, which were mainly for his own artistic education, Vesaliusincorporated his sketches and the explanations of them into the first anatomy textbook. His observations of human anatomy also helped to advance physiology, the study of the way the body functions. Other physicians took their investigation of anatomy off the page and onto the operating table. Free download PDF The 100 Most Influential Scientists Of All Time.
Ancient Greek physician Galen of Pergamum greatly influenced the study of medicine by performing countless autopsies on monkeys, pigs, sheep, and goats. His observations allowed him to ascertain the functions of the nervous system and note the difference between arteries and veins. Galen was also able to dispel the notion that arteries carry air, an idea that had persisted for 400 years. Free download PDF The 100 Most Influential Scientists Of All Time.
Centuries later, in the 1600s, Englishman William Harvey built on Galen’s theories and observations and helped lay the foundation for modern physiology with his numerous animal dissections. As a result of his work, Harvey was the first person to describe the function of the circulatory system, providing evidence that veins and arteries had separate and distinct functions. Before his realization that the heart acts as a pump that keeps blood flowing throughout the body, people thought that constrictions of the blood vessels caused the blood to move. Other groundbreaking scientists have relied on observations outside the body. Free download PDF The 100 Most Influential Scientists Of All Time.
A gifted Dutch scientist and lens grinder named Antonie van Leeuwenhoek refined the main tool of his trade, the microscope, which allowed him to become the first person to observe tiny microbes. Leeuwenhoek’s observations helped build the framework for bacteriology and protozoology. As several of the stories in this book confirm, science is a competitive yet oddly cooperative field, with researchers frequently either refuting or capitalizing on one another’s findings. Some ideas survive the test of time and remain intact while others are discarded or changed to fit more recent data. Free download PDF The 100 Most Influential Scientists Of All Time.
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