Here, we provided to Carbohydrates Hand Written Note For BSC. Carbohydrates are macronutrients and are one of the three main ways by which our body obtains its energy. They are called carbohydrates as they comprise carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen at their chemical level. Carbohydrates are essential nutrients which include sugars, fibers, and starches. Free download PDF Carbohydrates Hand Written Note For BSC.
Our body utilizes this sugar as a source of energy for the cells, organs, and tissues. The extra amount of energy or sugar is stored in our muscles and liver for further requirement. The term ‘carbohydrate’ is derived from the French term ‘hydrate de Carbone‘ meaning ‘hydrate of carbon‘. The general formula of this class of organic compounds is Cn(H2O)n. Free download PDF Carbohydrates Hand Written Note For BSC.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen-oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water) and thus with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may or may not be different from n). However, not all carbohydrates conform to this precise stoichiometric definition (e.g., uronic acids, deoxy-sugars such as fucose), nor are all chemicals that do conform to this definition automatically classified as carbohydrates (e.g. formaldehyde). Free download PDF Carbohydrates Hand Written Note For BSC.
The word saccharide comes from the Greek word σάκχαρον (sákkharon), meaning “sugar”. While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose, as in the monosaccharides fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (starch sugar) and the disaccharides sucrose (cane or beet sugar) and lactose (milk sugar). Free download PDF Carbohydrates Hand Written Note For BSC.
BOOK NAME – CARBOHYDRATES HAND WRITTEN NOTE FOR BSC
SIZE – 4.62MB
PAGES – 11
Simple carbohydrates have one or two sugar molecules. In simple carbohydrates, molecules are digested and converted quickly resulting in a rise in blood sugar levels. They are abundantly found in milk products, beer, fruits, refined sugars, candies, etc. These carbohydrates are called empty calories, as they do not possess fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Free download PDF Carbohydrates Hand Written Note For BSC.
Plants, being producers, synthesize glucose (C6H12O6) using raw materials like carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight. This process of photosynthesis converts solar energy to chemical energy. Consumers feed on plants and harvest energy stored in the bonds of the compounds synthesized by plants. Free download PDF Carbohydrates Hand Written Note For BSC.
Functions of Carbohydrates:
- The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy and food to the body and to the nervous system.
- Carbohydrates are known as one of the basic components of food, including sugars, starch, and fiber which are abundantly found in grains, fruits, and milk products.
- Carbohydrates are also known as starch, simple sugars, complex carbohydrates, and so on.
- It is also involved in fat metabolism and prevents ketosis.
- Inhibits the breakdown of proteins for energy as they are the primary source of energy.
- An enzyme by the name amylase assists in the breakdown of starch into glucose, finally to produce energy for metabolism.
Sources of Carbohydrates:
- Simple sugars are found in the form of fructose in many fruits.
- Galactose is present in all dairy products.
- Lactose is abundantly found in milk and other dairy products.
- Maltose is present in cereal, beer, potatoes, processed cheese, pasta, etc.
- Sucrose is naturally obtained from sugar and honey containing small amounts of vitamins and minerals.
These simple sugars that consist of minerals and vitamins exist commonly in milk, fruits, and vegetables. Many refined and other processed foods like white flour, white rice, and sugar, lack important nutrients and hence, they are labeled “enriched.” It is quite healthy to use vitamins, carbohydrates, and all other organic nutrients in their normal forms. Free download PDF Carbohydrates Hand Written Note For BSC.
Examples of Carbohydrates:
Following are the important examples of carbohydrates:
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