What is an Operating System?
Here, we provided to Best Operating System Hand Written Note. An Operating system (OS) is a software that acts as an interface between the end-user and computer hardware. Every computer must have at least one OS to run other programs. An application like Chrome, MS Word, Games, etc needs some environment in which it will run and perform its task.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. Free download PDF Best Operating System Hand Written Note.
For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers. Free download PDF Best Operating System Hand Written Note.
The dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (13.23%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place (1.57%). In the mobile sector (including smartphones and tablets), Android’s share is up to 70% in the year 2017. Free download PDF Best Operating System Hand Written Note.
According to third-quarter 2016 data, Android’s share on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent with also a growth rate of 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple’s iOS with 12.1 percent with per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent. Linux distributions are dominant in the server and supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. Free download PDF Best Operating System Hand Written Note.
BOOK NAME – BEST OPERATING SYSTEM HAND WRITTEN NOTE
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PAGES – 52
History Of OS:
- Operating systems were first developed in the late 1950s to manage tape storage
- The General Motors Research Lab implemented the first OS in the early 1950s for their IBM 701
- In the mid-1960s, operating systems started to use disks
- In the late 1960s, the first version of the Unix OS was developed
- The first OS built by Microsoft was DOS. It was built in 1981 by purchasing the 86-DOS software from a Seattle company
- The present-day popular OS Windows first came to existence in 1985 when a GUI was created and paired with MS-DOS.
Features of Operating System
Features of Operating System:
Here is a list commonly found important features of an Operating System:
- Protected and supervisor mode
- Allows disk access and file systems Device drivers Networking Security
- Program Execution
- Memory management Virtual Memory Multitasking
- Handling I/O operations
- Manipulation of the file system
- Error Detection and handling
- Resource allocation
- Information and Resource Protection
Functions of an Operating System:
- Process management
- Memory management
- File management
- Device Management
- I/O System Management
- Secondary-Storage Management
- Command interpretation
- Job accounting
- Communication management
Types of Operating system
- Batch Operating System
- Multitasking/Time-Sharing OS
- Multiprocessing OS
- Real-Time OS
- Distributed OS
- Network OS
- Mobile OS
Why use an operating system?
An operating system brings powerful benefits to computer software and software development. Without an operating system, every application would need to include its own UI, as well as the comprehensive code needed to handle all low-level functionality of the underlying computer, such as disk storage, network interfaces, and so on. Considering the vast array of underlying hardware available, this would vastly bloat the size of every application and make software development impractical. Free download PDF Best Operating System Hand Written Note.
Instead, many common tasks, such as sending a network packet or displaying text on a standard output device, such as a display, can be offloaded to system software that serves as an intermediary between the applications and the hardware. The system software provides a consistent and repeatable way for applications to interact with the hardware without the applications needing to know any details about the hardware. Free download PDF Best Operating System Hand Written Note.
As long as each application accesses the same resources and services in the same way, that system software — the operating system — can service almost any number of applications. This vastly reduces the amount of time and coding required to develop and debug an application, while ensuring that users can control, configure, and manage the system hardware through a common and well-understood interface. Free download PDF Best Operating System Hand Written Note.
Once installed, the operating system relies on a vast library of device drivers to tailor OS services to the specific hardware environment. Thus, every application may make a common call to a storage device, but the OS receives that call and uses the corresponding driver to translate the call into actions (commands) needed for the underlying hardware on that specific computer. Free download PDF Best Operating System Hand Written Note.
Today, the operating system provides a comprehensive platform that identifies, configures, and manages a range of hardware, including processors; memory devices and memory management; chipsets; storage; networking; port communication, such as Video Graphics Array (VGA), High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) and Universal Serial Bus (USB); and subsystem interfaces, such as Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe). Free download PDF Best Operating System Hand Written Note.
The advantage of using the Operating System:
- Allows you to hide details of hardware by creating an abstraction
- Easy to use with a GUI
- Offers an environment in which a user may execute programs/applications
- The operating system must make sure that the computer system convenient to use
- Operating System acts as an intermediary among applications and the hardware components
- It provides the computer system resources with easy to use the format
- Acts as an intermediator between all hardware’s and software’s of the system
Disadvantages of using Operating System:
- If any issue occurs in OS, you may lose all the contents which have been stored in your system
- The operating system’s software is quite expensive for small size organizations which adds a burden on them. Example Windows
- It is never entirely secure as a threat can occur at any time
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