The prefix “n-“
The prefix “n-” (or normal) is used when all carbons form a continuous, unbranched (linear) chain. If a functional group (such as an alcohol) is present that functional group is on the end of the chain. Not to be confused with ‘nor’, which indicates a missing methyl group
The prefix “iso“
The prefix “iso” is used when all carbons except one form a continuous chain. This one carbon is part of an isopropyl group at the end of the chain.
The prefix “neo”
The prefix “neo” is used when all but two carbons form a continuous chain, and these two carbons are part of a terminal tert-butyl group
The prefix “sec“
The prefix “sec” or “s” is used when the functional group is bonded to a secondary carbon. This prefix is only useful for a four-carbon chain. It is not applicable with a shorter chain, and it is often ambiguous when the chain has five or more carbons.
The prefix “tert”
The prefix “tert” or “t” is used when the functional group is bonded to a tertiary carbon.
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